R. Vishnevsky.


About a mistake in  the atomic structure description.


    The Quantum mechanical theory of the atomic structure has made a serious mistake describing the order of electron shells filling. The question is in the energy level alternation in a multielectron atom. The 4s level is considered, for example, to be placed ahead of 3d energy levels.1

    It does not correspond to the reality and gives rise to a false interpretation of physical-chemical properties of the elements of the Mendeleev Periodic System from the point of view of quantum mechanics2. And though the properties of the elements themselves dont change because of it the notion of the substance structure is damaged sufficiently.

    The article is devoted to this drawback removal. For clarifying the real order of the level alternation in a multielectron atom the physical sense of ionization energy should be defined more precisely.    

    We know that its necessary for the atom ionization to do some work to split out an electron3. This energy is numerically equal to ionization potential and is usually expressed in electron volts. For example, this magnitude for the helium ion He+ is 54,4 eV. In the neutral helium atom its equal to 24,6 eV for any of two electrons, i.e. the total energy necessary for a complete destruction of the electron pair system of the helium atom is 79 eV. In other words the total energy of the electron pair system T is T=I1+I2 where I1 and I2 are energies of single and double pair ionization respectively. It concerns any pair of a multielectron atom. Here and further a pair means two electrons in the same orbit.

    If we consider two paired electrons as a unified system we may assume that the energy of the latter T comes out of two identical magnitudes of pair level energy TL  and bond energy between them TB : T=TB+2TL.

     During the process of single ionization of the pair only the energy of the pair bond is compensated, i.e. TB=I1.

    The electrons break loose from each other, when it happens the level energy of one of the electrons is imparted to the retained one. Its possible to explain the following way. As the electrons of the pair rotate around the nucleus of the atom  in the opposite directions, during the process of single ionization one of the electrons is retarded by the ionizing field and the other is accelerated to the same degree. The same process takes place under impact ionization; the electron retained by the nucleus becomes the carrier of the total pair level energy.

    At the moment of double ionization the doubled energy of the pair level is compensated. I2=2TL.

    The given reasoning can be spread on any electron pair of a multielectron atom including the atom with the only electron in the outer shell. In this case the only electron may be considered as a singly ionized pair. The single ionization potential of such an atom is a magnitude equal to the energy of electron affinity and the energy itself is the single ionization energy of the given atom. For example, the first and the second potentials of ionization for the hydrogen atom are equal to  I1= 0,747 V and I2= 13,605 V respectively.

    On the basis of the discussed above one can come to the conclusion that the values of ionizing potentials for any atom characterize the alternating values of the bond energy TB and doubled level energy 2TL of the corresponding electron pair.

    Generally, the doubled level energy of n-pair for atoms with even atomic members is numerically equal to 2n-multiple ionization potential. For atoms with uneven atomic numbers the doubled energy of n-level is numerically equal to     (2n-1) multiple ionization potential.

    According to the ionization potentials given in reference books4 the graph of the dependence of the pair level energy on the atomic number of an element is made. For the sake of it the atomic numbers of the elements are consistently laid off as abscissa and the magnitudes of the double level energy of the corresponding atom are laid off as ordinate.

    The points connected in the graph referring to the first level from the nucleus form the dependence curve of the first pair level energy on  element numbers. The curve begin from 13,6 eV point for the hydrogen atom and goes far beyond the graph reaching the value of 1,15 . 105 eV in the region of element 92. The curve following the first one shows the change in the second pair level from the nucleus and so on. It results in making a family of curves given in Fig. 1.             

     It should be noted that the movement of curves expressing total pair energy dependence T on the number of curves in Fig.1. The difference lies only in their inclination.

   In spite of the fact that the graph on the whole shows only the outer, with respect to the nucleus, cut of energy levels (to 200 eV), its enough for the majority of atoms to define the total number of levels and the order of their arrangement for any atom including uranium. To do it a straight line should be made from the point with the atomic number of an element so as it could cross all the curves laying to the left from the point. As it is done, for example, for the element with atomic number l8 in Fig.1.The straight line crosses 9 curves laid in groups : 1-4-4 looking from the left to the right. This cut gives a qualitative conception of the arrangement of the energy levels of the argon atom. In quantum mechanics this level order of the argon atom is compared to the following alternation of quantum levels: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p.

    Analyzing the graph its easy to identify every curve beginning from 1s and coming up to 6d. For convenience, the periods of the system of elements and the number of elements in every period are given in the graph. To distinguish individual curves in the group they are labeled with numbers. So the three curves corresponding to the 2p shell are marked consistently : 2p1, 2p2, 2p3 and so on.

    The results of  analyzing  the energy levels dependence of the family of curves on the atomic number of the element allow us to come to the following conclusions:

1. The actual order of the level energy arrangement in an unagitated multielectron atom refutes the quantum mechanics statement about the alternation order expressed in the inequality 1s<2s<2p<3s<3p<4s<3d<4p<5s<4d<5p<6s<4f

The given fallibility of the inequality is easily  established if we refer to the graph of the pair level curves, for example, the  4s1 level of the copper atom is-7,7 eV and the nearest 3d5 pair level of the same atom is-38,5eV,         i.e. 4s>3d. The same can be said about 4d and 5s levels.

    One more example. According to the graph the scandium atom has no 4s level but quantum mechanics claims that its electron structure is expressed by the formula5  1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2.

2. The energy of the electron pair levels in one and the same shell increases in absolute magnitude the nearer the level is to the nucleus. This fact contradicts the statement of quantum mechanics according to which all the electrons of one shell have equal energy levels (so-called equivalent electrons).

3. Quantum mechanics assumes the existence of free energy levels in an unagitated atom. It is considered, for example, that the atoms of K and Ca have a free shell 3d and the next shell 4s is occupied by electrons. In reality no atom in the periodic system of elements has free inner levels.

4. The electron structure of most chemical elements from the point of view of quantum mechanics is interpreted incorrectly.

The pointed out drawbacks  allow us to doubt the alternation order of d and f shells as well.

There are no data for  building up curves in the region of points 55-68 of the graph in Fig.1 among ionization potentials data of chemical elements given in reference literature. According to the data we have only portions of  the curves (continuous lines) are represented on the graph. However, the generality of the family of curves allows to assume that the lacking curves follow in the way shown in Fig.1 by dotted lines. In other words the group of the curves 5p is followed by 5 curves of the shell 5d and the last two dotted curves adjoin five following curves (the region of points 69-79 of the graph) forming the group of  seven curves of the shell f, the latter having the same inclination as the curves of  groups 5s,5p, 5d.That is why they are marked as group 5f.

The family of curves in Fig.1 indicates in the whole the structure of  the force field, the source of which being in the nucleus. The field in question is assumed to a gravirotational field (GR) described in the authors other papers6.

In this case we speak about a spiral-planetary model of an atom representing a gravirotational system that can be characterized in a following way:

        One or several force lines of the nucleus field exists in an atom;

        When the atom is unagitated an electron is only in the force lines and rotates together with the field;

        The movement of an electron from one orbit to another takes place only in a spiral trajectory undergoing a tangent acceleration.

In a form a GR-model of an atom resembles a double convex disc like an unknown flying object, the orbits of uneven electrons being situated on one of its surfaces and the orbits of even electrons - on the other. Two electrons making a pair (e.g. 1s1 and 1s2) have the same in radius but different in space orbits: one being moved by the right R-field; the other - by the left situated on the different sides of the nucleus. So the first electron has a left spin and the second has a right spin accordingly. Twin electrons are always in a counterphase.

To the periphery orbits of  the electron pairs are getting closer in space but do not coincide. There cannot be two electrons on one and the same orbit!

Force lines of a rotational field of the nucleus are spiral curves along which  electrons are grouped. The lines are continuous, that is why only portions of the same force lines of the R-field are found in every period of curves according to Fig.1. For example, in Fig.1 the curves 2p1, 3p1,  4p1  and so on are the exhibition of one and the same force line p1  of a rotational field of the nucleus. The field itself is aslant-symmetric and rotates pairs of electrons with opposite spins. That is why the spiral p1 is common for the groups of the electrons with the indices p1   and p2  of the atom in question. 

          Fig.2 shows several periods of the diverging spiral marked consistently with the symbols of quantum mechanics 1s, 2s, 3s, ... and they conventionally reflect (the spiral is not logarithmic) the form of the force field. At the beginning of the second period the change  takes place  and the field is segregated. The group of three spirals 2p appear from the outside of the spiral 2s due to the reason existing in the nucleus. This group goes together with the spiral s further and at the beginning of the third period they are adjoined from the outside by the group of 5 spirals 3d. Now three groups of spirals continue diverging  and at the end of the fifth period they are adjoined from the outside by the next group of 7 spirals 5f and so on.

         If one connects every period of a spiral group with the corresponding electron shell of an atom, it is  possible to establish the following order of shell alternation in a multielectron atom: 1s, 2s, 2p,3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p, 4d, 5s, 5p, 5d, 5f, 6s, 6p,..., this order differs greatly from that admitted by quantum mechanics but it matches well the experimental data of  the electron pairs in Fig.1.

         The Mendeleev Periodic System of elements has played an extremely important role in the development of scientific outlook at the substance structure. Nowadays, a century later, the drawbacks of the table of this system become clearly seen.

         At first, it doesnt include lanthanide and actinide families and           the additional table was created for them. Another drawback is a square -nest form, preventing the variety of chemical elements from being reflected more completely.

         It would be more natural for the table of elements to be expressed in the form of the electron shell of an atom which planer variant is given in Fig. 3. Here the Periodic System of Elements is shown in the form of a diverging spiral. It naturally includes elements of the groups, that are not inscribed in the known table. The system for consideration contains periods, corresponding to the layers of a electron shell of an atom. So the first period includes 1s shell, the second - 2s and 2p, the third period includes shells 3s, 3p and 3d. That is why there is no coincidence  between the periods of the given table and Mendeleevs system.

Only the uneven half of the system from the first element to 115 is shown in Fig.3. The even half of the system is made by increasing the number of every atom in a unit. Group indices increase accordingly. So element 114 of the group p2  appears in the even table instead of element 113 of the group p1 and so on.

Elements of the system are displayed in the order of increasing their atomic numbers in a diverging spiral in the way the elements of a corresponding layer are placed in every period of the latter. The elements themselves are grouped in spiral sleeves curved opposite to the main spiral. This is a result of  a change in steepness of force lines of a rotational field as it is getting away from the nucleus of an atom: it is seen in Fig.1 that the inclination of curves groups decrease with every other period .At the same time Fig.3 reflects only qualitatively the angular position of element groups in the table.

The suggested system of chemical elements is useful as it gives some conception of a planetary system of any atom. The whole spiral in Fig.3 reflects the structure of the electron system of an atom of chemical element 115. Like elements of the table are grouped in galaxy sleeves the electrons are regulated by the force GR-field of the atom nucleus. The radii of stationary electron orbits correspond to the distance between the elements and the spiral centre.

It should be noted that the force field structure of an atom depends on its nucleus charge. For example, a lanthanum atom has no force lines of the group f that results in a looser placement of the force lines left in a period limits.

Table 1 gives period numbers, shell indices, the quantity of elements (electrons in the shell), atomic numbers of the elements and the order of filling the levels of the presumed system of chemical elements. The latter embraces 114 already discovered elements and can be enriched.




Translated by Olga Afanasjeva.




  Sochi, 2001.


1 Physical encyclopedic dictionary . M., 1984.

2 Glinka. General Chemistry. L., 1987.

3 Yavorsky, Detlaf. Reference book on physics. M., 1990.

4 Physical-chemical properties of elements. Kiev, 1965

5 General Chemistry. P. 90.

6 Vishnevsky R. The Phisical Basis of Lightdynamics .1999

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